European trade goods included woollen and cotton cloth, buttons and beads, tobacco, guns, ammunition, iron and steel, metal pots and pans, and sheets of copper.
Revered among the high cultures of the Americas (particularly the Maya) as well as in China, jade was an important trade item on the Northwest Coast.
The large Glycymeris valve in the centre was not pierced, but its surface preserved bright red pigmentation.
There are two variations on these techniques: first, with mould pressed beads, the molten glass is forced into a mould to give beads a certain shape, and to speed up the process of producing beads; second, mosaic beads are made by fusing slices of drawn canes to a wound or drax, n glass body.
“Beads: A Universe of Meaning”, a new exhibit at the Wheelwright Museum of the American Indian in Santa Fe presents a concise history of American Indian beads as a medium of exchange, artistic expression, and identity for the Native people of North America.
Shell artifacts were the only grave offering category associated with interments dating to each time period represented at Mitchell Ridge, spanning the Late Archaic to Early Historic periods.Serious students of archeology will want to consult Chapter 11 of the site report which provides the essential technical detail, grave associations, and comparative analysis done by authors Meredith Dreiss and Robert Ricklis.Archeologists use various terms for what we call grave goods here, including grave offerings, funerary objects, burial inclusions, etc.Beads were carried along ancient trade routes before the Europeans arrived and then preceded them into the interior.On the native side, since 1608 in Quebec, the fur trade has involved trade goods, metal tools and especially American Indian beads.